ls list contents of the current directory ls -l lists contents and shows more details ls -a lists all files, including hidden files (that start with dot) ls -al
cd returs to your initial (home) directory cd folder_name goes to the specified directory
pwd displays the current directory you are in
mkdir folder_name create a new directory
rmdir folder_name deletes a directory that is already empty
rm file_name deletes a file rm * deletes all fiels in the current directory, dangerous!!! rm -R folder_name deletes the directory and its contents, very dangerous!!!
vi file_name runs a vi editor and opens or creates a file, youmust know vi first! pico file_name runs a pico editor and opens or creates a file, pico is easy to use because it is as simple as notepad
chmod a+r file_name changes access mode on a file so that everyone can read it chmod a+r * changes access on all files chmod a+rx folder_name changes access on a directory so that everyone can read it chmod a-w file_name makes a file read only chmod u+w file_name makes file writeble to you (u-user, a-all) chmod a+w file_name makes fiel writealble to everone. Shoud be avoided! You do not want other people to alter your Web pages!!! chmod a+rx file_name changes access on a file so that everyone can read it or run it as a program or as a CGI script more details: initial option: -R execute recursively on all files inside of a specified folder and its subfolders first letter: a all; u user (you); g group (all students); o all other people; second letter: + enable access; - disable access third letter: r read; w write; x access for folders; x executable for files; more complicated example: chmod -R a+rx,go-w ~/public_html
man command runs help for the given command name man ls man chmod ...
exit logs you off from the Unix machine
pine runs a Unix email software